- 1Spain: An attractive country for investment
- 2Setting up a business in Spain
- 3 Tax System
- 4 Investment aid and incentives in Spain
- 5 Labor and social security regulations
- 6 Intellectual property law
- 7Legal framework and tax implications of e-commerce in Spain
- AI Annex I Company and Commercial Law
- AIIAnnex II The Spanish financial system
- AIIIAnnex IIIAccounting and audit issues
- Different ways of doing business in Spain
- Tax Identification Number (N.I.F.) and Foreigner Identity Number (N.I.E.)
- N.I.E for individuals who are to be shareholders or directors of companies resident in Spain, tax and legal representatives of a branch in Spain, permanent establishments or limited liability entrepreneurs
- N.I.F. for legal entities that are to be shareholders or directors of companies resident in Spain, or owners of branches in Spain or permanent establishments
- Provisional and definitive N.I.F. of the company resident in Spain that is to be set up
- Formation of a company
- Limited liability entrepreneur
- Opening of a branch
- Other alternatives for operating in Spain
- Forms of business cooperation
- Temporary Business Associations (UTEs)
- Economic Interest Groupings (EIGs)
- Silent participation Agreement (C.E.P.)
- Participating loans
- Joint ventures through Spanish corporations or limited liability companies
- Distribution, agency, commission agency and franchising agreements
- Other alternatives for investing in Spain
- Dispute resolution
- Appendix I - Table summarizing the tax treatment given to the various ways of investing in Spain
9. Dispute resolution
Arbitration is increasingly viewed as a genuine alternative for the settlement of commercial disputes. Companies, aware of the greater speed, efficiency and flexibility of arbitration compared to action before the courts, are increasingly keen to turn to arbitration. Furthermore, Spanish courts increasingly support arbitration, both in terms of arbitration agreements and the enforcement of arbitral awards.
Arbitration Law 60/2003 of December 23, 2003 (the “Arbitration Law”) enables both individuals and companies to enter into agreements to submit to one or more arbitrators any disputes that have arisen or may arise on matters the regulation of which is not subject to any legal restrictions. The Arbitration Law is almost entirely inspired by the UNCITRAL Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration. Royal Decree 231/2008, of February 15, regulates the Consumer Arbitration System for disputes arising between consumers or users and companies in relation to the legal or contractual rights granted to consumers.
The Arbitration Law allows for the granting of interim measures by the arbitrators. This power does not oust the jurisdiction of the courts under the Civil Procedure Law to grant interim measures while a decision is pending in an arbitration proceeding. The jurisdiction of courts and arbitrators to grant interim measures is concurrent, meaning that parties can request interim measures from the arbitral tribunal or from the court, without distinction.
Under the Arbitration Law it is possible to enforce an arbitral award handed down in Spain even where proceedings to set aside the award have already been brought. In this case, a court may only stay the enforcement of the award if the party against whom the award is being enforced posts security for an amount equal to the amount set out in the award, plus any potential damages arising from the delay in enforcement of the award.
The grounds for refusal to recognize or enforce arbitral awards contained in the Arbitration Law are based on the contents of the UNCITRAL Model Law, which in turn is based almost in its entirety on the New York Convention of 1958. Spain has ratified the New York Convention of 1958 and the European Convention on International Commercial Arbitration signed in Geneva on April 21, 1961.
Spain’s adherence to a Model Law-inspired arbitration regime makes international arbitration in Spain more accessible for cross-border practitioners and their clients. The Arbitration Law brings Spain ever closer to becoming an ideal venue for international arbitration, particularly where Latin American interests are involved, given Spain's convenient geographical location in southern Europe, its competitive cost structure compared to other European jurisdictions and its linguistic and cultural ties to Latin America.
The Madrid International Arbitration Center (“CIAM” by its Spanish abbreviation) began to operate in 2020 following the merger of the international activity of the Madrid Arbitration Court, the Civil and Commercial Arbitration Court and the Spanish Arbitration Court. The CIAM has the jurisdiction to administer two types of international arbitration proceedings: (i) arbitration proceedings arising from agreements in which the parties stipulate the Madrid International Arbitration Center as the administering court, and (ii) arbitration proceedings originating from agreements in which the parties consented to arbitration administered by any of the four propelling entities as administering institutions and which are signed on or after January 1, 2020.
In addition, since June 2019, a Code of Good Arbitration Practices has existed which seeks to ensure that participants in arbitration proceedings abide by increasingly demanding standards for independence, impartiality, transparency and professional conduct.